California Wealth Management

Discussion in 'Optometry Archives' started by Fund Management - Global Market, Jul 14, 2009.


    Worldwide Precious Gem Stone Development. A different Giuen
    multifarious business activity encouraged to a first class of
    consistency and precision of the knowledge and care required

    Diamonds is committed to primordial the finest stones, formally
    generating California Wealth Management considered intergity entrusted
    with the responsibility of general delivering uncut rocks from the
    earth to the final gemstones. A diamond in the rough that has the
    possibility of being good, valuable, or attractive, but needs
    improvement processes a clear , very hard valuable stone, used in
    jewelry and in industry. Once mined and processed the next phase is to
    sort, classify and value the diamonds according to size, shape,
    quality and colour. Using more than 16,000 categories the diamonds are
    sorted and then sold to a small group of the world’s leading diamond
    cutters. A mineral also as gemstone precious by virtue of its
    composition, hardness, and rarity, cut and polished for ornamental
    use, or engraved. Of 120 minerals known to have been used as
    gemstones, only 25 are in common use in jewellery; of these the
    diamond, emerald, ruby and sapphire are classified as precious, and
    the topaz, amethyst, opal, aquamarine, etc., as semi-precious. Among
    synthetic precious stones to have been produced successfully, on a
    commercial scale, are rubies and sapphires (first produced by the
    Frenchman Verneuil in 1904 and 1909 respectively), emeralds (first
    made by German scientists c. 1930), and diamonds (first made by G.E.C.
    in U.S.A. in 1955). Diamonds were known before 3000 B.C.; and until
    their discovery in Brazil in 1725 India was the principal source of
    supply. Diamonds are found throughout the world from Russia, Siberia,
    Yakutia, Southern Africa, Congo, Portuguese West Africa, Tanganyika,
    Ghana, Brazil, and Australia. They may be found as alluvial diamonds,
    on or close to the earth’s surface in river beds or dried water-
    courses, or on the sea bottom or else in ‘pipes’ composed of blue
    ground or kimberlite, where the original matrix has penetrated the
    earth’s crust. In the latter case the blue ground is extracted, then
    washed until completely disintegrated, and the residue made to flow
    over vibrating, sloping tables where layer of petroleum grease arrests
    the diamonds. This involves wastage and x-ray sorting is being
    developed. The blue ground is first crushed and washed until
    completely disintegrated, and the resultant diamond inferous
    concentrates are then passed over gresae tables. The diamonds adhere
    to the grease and the residue is washed away. Further processed the
    bruting involves grinding away the edges of the stone to provide a
    basic outline, the stone is then given its facets. For a round
    brilliant cut diamond there are 58 facets. Diamonds are cut by the use
    of diamond dust. The 2 most frequent forms of cutting gem diamonds
    were the ‘brilliant’ (for thicker stones) and the ‘rose’ for shallower
    ones, but in 1961 Arpad Nagy, a Hungarian merchant, evolved the 1 st
    new method for 500 years, the ‘princess’. To give full refraction of
    light the back of the diamond is cut into angled and spaced grooves,
    and surface area becomes the criterion of value. Once cut, the stone
    is then graded for cut, colour, clarity and carat weight by a
    gemmological laboratory. Diamond is properly the hardest natural
    substance known (10 on Mohs’ scale). Composed of carbon, it
    crystallizes in the cubic system, other common crystals being
    octahedra and dodecahedra. The high refractive index of 2·42 and the
    high dispersion or ‘fire’ accounts for the display of colours seen in
    cut diamonds. Rough diamonds are dull or greasy before being cut, and
    only some 20 per cent are suitable as gems. There are 4 chief
    varieties: Well-crystallized transparent stones, colourless or only
    slightly tinted, valued as gems; bort, poorly crystallized or inferior
    diamonds; balas, an industrial variety, extremely hard and tough; and
    carbonado, or industrial diamond, also called black diamond or carbon,
    which is opaque, black or grey, and very though. Famous rough diamonds
    include the Cullian (3,025¾ carats, S.Africa 1905); Excelsior (995·2
    carats, S. Africa 1893) and President Vargas (726·6 carats, Brazil
    1938).Emerald a presious stone, a bright, grass-green variety of
    beryl. It is transparent or translucent, and the finest come from
    Muzo, in Columbia. Beryl species of presious stone; silicate of
    beryllium and aluminium. Beryl usually occurs as green hexagonal
    crystals sometimes of large size, found chiefly in granites and
    pegmatites; the dark green crystals are termed emeralds and the light
    blue-green aquamarines. Opal a non-crystalline form of silica,
    occuring in stalactites in volcanic rocks. The common opal is opaque,
    milk-white, yellow, red, blue or green, and lustrous. The presious
    opal is colourless, having innumerable cracks from which emanate
    brilliant colours produced from minute crystals of cristobalite. Opals
    are found in Hungary, New South Wales (black opals were 1 st
    discovered here in 1905) and Mexico, noted for fire opals. Pearls are
    calcareous substances secreted by many molluscs, which when deposited
    in thin layers on the inside of the shell forms the pearls. Although
    commercially valuable pearls are obtained from freshwater mussels,
    etc., the precious pearls comes from the various species of
    Margaritifera in the family Aviculidae, found in tropical waters off
    North and West Australia, the Californian coast, and in the Indian
    Ocean. The introduction on commercial scale by the Japanese c. 1920 of
    cultured pearls, produced by interesting an artificial irritant in the
    body of the oyster, largely affected the value of natural pearls.
    World’s most beautiful pearls comes from Japan. Pearls are technically
    not Gemstones, though the term is sometimes extended to cover them. A
    special features heterogeneous art in status and significance of
    ornamental correctness in effect of beauty and dignity. Giuen
    Monolith, the exhibition being held here reflect your wider vision for
    the development. The proportions of the stone to be visible. It can be
    named by whomever is lucky enough to acquire it.

    Industrial Diamond Website:


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    Fund Management - Global Market, Jul 14, 2009
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